Nineteenth Century History : 1825 – 1849
1825 Stockton and Darlington railway opens. Michael Faraday discovers benzene. William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet in London.
1826 Jesuits return to France. Samuel Mory patents the internal combustion engine. William Austin Burt patents typographer, the first practical typewriter machine. After almost 450 years the last case of the Spanish inquisition is held in Valencia (approximately 30,000 persons were condemned in the inquisition).
1827 George Canning elected Prime Minister of Britain. Chester Stone patents a washing machine. John Walker invents the modern matches.
1828 Wellington becomes Prime Minister of Britain. Andrew Jackson elected US President. Noah Webster publishes the first complete American dictionary – in 1806, he had published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language.
1829 Pius VIII becomes Pope. Catholic Emancipation Act passed in Britain. William Lloyd Garrison begins abolitionist movement in US. The Rainhill locomotive trails: George Stephenson’s Rocket wins. Frenchmen Louis Braille invents braille printing. William Austin Burt patents a typographer, a predecessor to the typewriter.
1830 William IV becomes King of Britain. Victor Hugo publishes Hernani. Frenchmen B. Thimonnier invents a sewing machine. Thaddeus Fairbanks invents platform scales. Ice-making machine invented by Jacob Perkins. Gauss and Weber develop a small scale telegraph system in Gottingen.
1831 Gregory XVI becomes Pope. Victor Hugo publishes The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction, the dynamo. Cyrus H. McCormick invents the first commercially successful grain reaper.
1832 Pope condemns teaching of Lamennals. Louis Braille invents the stereoscope.
1833 Thomas Carlyle publishes Sartor Resartus. Noah Webster publishes his own revision of the King James Bible.
1834 Charles Babbage designs the Analytical Engine, the precursor of the computer. George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film. Henry Blair patents a corn planter.. Thomas Davenport introduces the electric streetcar. Michael Faraday invents electrolysis.
1835 Ferdinand I becomes Emperor of Austria. Henry Burden invents machine manufacturing horseshoes. Samuel Colt patents the first revolving barrel multi-shot gun. Henry F. Talbot invents calotype photography. Solymon Merrick patents the wrench.
1836 Martin van Buren elected US President. Beginning of Great Trek of Boers away from British territory in Southern Africa. Franklin Beale invents the coin press. Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invent the propeller. Alonzo Phillips patents a friction match.
1837 Queen Victory reigns Britain. Charles Dickens publishes Pickwick Papers. Thomas Davenport is one of the first to use the electric motor to power shop machinery – he also builds the first electric model railroad car. John Deere patents a steel plow. Samuel Morse introduces the telegraph. The first Kindergarten opened in Blankenberg, Germany by science teacher Frederick Greobel. (It was originally called the “small child occupation institute.”)
1838 Anti-corn Law League founded by John Bright and William Cobden. Isaac Babbitt introduces Babbit metal. Samuel Morse introduces the Morse code.
1839 William Henry Fox Talbot develops the process to make photographs, calling the photographs Talbotypes. Charles Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber for tyres. Thaddeus Fairbanks invents platform scales. James Nasmyth invents the steam hammer. Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent Daguerreotype photography. William Robert Grove invents the first hydrogen fuel cell.
1840 Samuel Morse granted a patent for telegraphy signals. (The first telegraph read “What hath God wrought!”) Penny postage introduced in Britain. William Henry Harrison elected US President. William II becomes King of Holland. John Herschel invents the blueprint. Scottish blacksmith Kirkpatrick Macmillan invents the bicycle as we know it today.
1841 Orlando Jones patents cornstarch. Samuel Slocum patents the stapler. John Rand awarded a patent for a collapsible tube for use with such items as toothpaste. John Tyler becomes US President. James Baird (re)discovers hypnosis. (Franz Mesmer used hypnotism in 1778).
1842 Joseph Dart builds the first grain elevator. George Bruce receives the first Design Patent for printing type faces.
1843 Fax process patented by Alexander Bain.
1844 Irish doctor Francis Rynd invents syringe with hollow needle for injecting medicine. John Mercer invents mercerized cotton. Samuel Morse sets up 40-mile telegraph line between Washington DC and Baltimore.
1845 Failure of potato crop in Ireland. Charlotte Bronte publishes Jane Eyre. Stephen Perry of London patents the rubber band. Elias Howe invents a sewing machine. Cladius Ash introduces false teeth made of porcelain and mounted with steel springs. Christian Schönbein introduces gun cotton.
1846 Pius IX become Pope. John Drummond granted patent for molds for the manufacture of candles. Dentist William Morton of Massachusetts the first to use anaesthesia for tooth extraction. Richard M Hoe invents cylinder printing press.
1847 The doughnut is invented by Hanson Gregory, a New England mariner. William Makepeace Thackeray publishes Vanity Fair. The Rotary Printing Press patented by Richard Hoe. William Siemens invents the regenerative steam engine.
1848 Gold discovered in California. Zachary Taylor elected US President. Waldo Hanchett patents the dental chair.
1849 28 German states accept Frankfort Constitution of the Empire. US patent system formed. Baking powder invented. James Harrison of Australia designs an ice-making machine. Walter Hunt patents the first safety pin. James B. Francis invents hydraulic turbine. Conical bullet 1849 Claude Minié invents the conical bullet. FJ Monier introduces reinforced concrete.
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